As I learn to automate

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Entr the wrld of linux

Entr the wrld of linux

I had used UNIX a long time ago. A few weeks ago, though when I had to setup and use a Linux machine, none of it came back to me! Oh well, so as I learn o automate, here is some notes about the file Linux system.

Everything looks like subdirectories or files under this. That includes, files folders, multiple hard disks, media devices, CD ROMs, floppy drives etc.

And any of them can actually be on your machine or be a network resource. All of these are to be “mounted” at boot up. The flexibility here is that they can be changed at will; either moved around on your machine or off of it! (More later on that)

Here are some of the directories:

System root

home directory of the user root

all the binaries that are essential to the working of the system.
lilo, fdisk, init, ifconfig etc

other binaries of use to the system administrator.
network daemons

/bin –
commands that are used by both the system administrator as well as
non-privileged users.
bash, csh, cp, mv, rm, cat, ls etc.

More binaries

/boot file
Linux kernel
Lilo places the boot sector backups in this directory

hda1, hda2 etc these are the partitions on your the first master drive
/dev/cdrom – CDROM
/dev/fd0 – floppy drive
/dev/dsp - speaker device

/etc –
configuration files
lilo.conf, hosts, resolv.conf, fstab
/etc/rc.d directory contains the system startup scripts

/home/username – Home directories for users
user specific settings

/lib –
shared libraries that are required by system programs

In the event of an improper shutdown, Fsck will be fired up at next boot. Fsck checks the file system and attempts to recover any corrupt files that are then stored to /lost+found
(I think it should be named found + lost)

This is a generic mount point under which you mount your filesystems
or devices. Mounting is the process by which you make a filesystem
available to the system. After mounting your files will be accessible
under the mount-point. This directory usually contains mount points or
sub-directories where you mount your floppy and your CD. You can also
create additional mount-points here if you want. There is no limitation to
creating a mount-point anywhere on your system but convention says that
you do not litter your file system with mount-points.

all extra software that doesn’t come with the os

psuedo file system is a real time, memory resident file system
that tracks the processes running on your machine and the state of your

Temporary files

user binaries
telnet, ftp etc

system documentation

source code for the Linux kernel.

spooling data like mail and also the output from the printer daemon
system logs