As I learn to automate

Friday, August 04, 2006

Linux cheat sheet

This here is a Linux command cheat sheet.
I found it here:

apropos word
Show commands pertinent to word.

which command
Show full path name of command

time command
See how long a command takes

time cat
Start stopwatch. Ctrl-d to stop. See also sw

nice info
Run a low priority command (info in this case)

renice 19 -p $$
Make shell (script) low priority. Use for non interactive tasks

look prefix
Quickly search (sorted) dictionary

grep --color expr...ion /usr/share/dict/words
Highlight occurances of regular expression in dictionary

gpg -c file
Encrypt file

gpg file.gpg
Decrypt file

alias hd='od -Ax -tx1z -v'
Handy hexdump. (usage e.g.: hd /proc/self/cmdline less)

alias realpath='readlink -f'
Canonicalize path. (usage e.g.: realpath ~/../$USER)

set grep $USER
Search current environment

ls /usr/bin pr -T9 -W$COLUMNS
Print in 9 columns to width of terminal

touch -c -t 0304050607 file
Set file timestamp (YYMMDDhhmm)
dir navigation

cd -
Go to previous directory

Go to home directory

(cd dir && command)
Go to dir, execute command and return to current dir

pushd .
Put current dir on stack so you can popd back to it

gzip < /dev/cdrom > cdrom.iso.gz
Save copy of data cdrom

mkisofs -V NAME -r dir gzip > cdrom.iso.gz
Create cdrom image from contents of dir

mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir
Mount the cdrom image at /mnt/dir (read only)

cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast
Clear a CDRW

gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -
Burn cdrom image (use dev=ATAPI -scanbus to confirm dev)

cdparanoia -B
Rip audio tracks from CD to wav files in current dir

cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -audio *.wav
Make audio CD from all wavs in current dir (see also cdrdao)

oggenc --tracknum='track' track.cdda.wav -o 'track.ogg'
Make ogg file from wav file

tar c dir/ bzip2 > dir.tar.bz2
Make archive of dir/

bzip2 -dc dir.tar.bz2 tar x
Extract archive (use gzip instead of bzip2 for tar.gz files)

tar c dir/ gzip gpg -c ssh user@remote 'dd of=dir.tar.gz.gpg'
Make encrypted archive of dir/ on remote machine

find dir/ -name '*.txt' tar c --files-from=- bzip2 > dir_txt.tar.bz2
Make archive of subset of dir/ and below

find dir/ -name '*.txt' xargs cp -a --target-directory=dir_txt/ --parents
Make copy of subset of dir/ and below

( tar c /dir/to/copy ) ( cd /where/to/ && tar x -p )
Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to /where/to/ dir

( cd /dir/to/copy && tar c . ) ( cd /where/to/ && tar x -p )
Copy (with permissions) contents of copy/ dir to /where/to/

( tar c /dir/to/copy ) ssh -C user@remote 'cd /where/to/ && tar x -p'
Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to remote:/where/to/ dir

dd bs=1M if=/dev/hda gzip ssh user@remote 'dd of=hda.gz'
Backup harddisk to remote machine
rsync (Use the --dry-run option for testing)

rsync -P rsync:// file
Only get diffs. Do multiple times for troublesome downloads

rsync --bwlimit=1000 fromfile tofile
Locally copy with rate limit. It's like nice for I/O

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~/public_html/'~/public_html'
Mirror web site (using compression and encryption)

rsync -auz -e ssh remote:/dir/ . && rsync -auz -e ssh . remote:/dir/
Synchronize current directory with remote one
file searching

alias l='ls -l --color=auto'
quick dir listing

ls -lrt
List files by date. See also newest

find -name '*.[ch]' xargs grep -E 'expr'
Search 'expr' in this dir and below. See also findrepo

find -type f -print0 xargs -r0 grep -F 'string'
Search all regular files for 'string' in this dir and below

find -maxdepth 1 -type f xargs grep -F 'string'
Search all regular files for 'string' in this dir

find -maxdepth 1 -type d while read dir; do echo $dir; echo cmd2; done
Process each item with multiple commands (in while loop)

find -type f ! -perm -444
Find files not readable by all (useful for web site)

find -type d ! -perm -111
Find dirs not accessible by all (useful for web site)

locate -r 'file[^/]*\.txt'
Search cached index for names. This re is like glob *file*.txt
networking (Note ifconfig, route, mii-tool, nslookup commands are obsolete)

ip link show
List interfaces

ethtool interface
List interface status

ip link set dev eth0 name wan
Rename eth0 to wan

ip addr add brd + dev eth0
Add ip and mask(

ip link set dev interface up
Bring interface up (or down)

ip route add default via
Set default gateway to

tc qdisc add dev lo root handle 1:0 netem delay 20msec
Add 20ms latency to loopback device (for testing)

tc qdisc del dev lo root
Remove latency added above

Lookup ip address for name or vice versa

hostname -i
Lookup local ip address (equivalent to host `hostname`)

netstat -tupl
List internet services on a system

netstat -tup
List active connections to/from system
wget (multi purpose download tool)

(cd cmdline && wget -nd -pHEKk
Store local browsable version of a page to the current dir

wget -c
Continue downloading a partially downloaded file

wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg'
Download a set of files to the current directory

wget ftp://remote/file[1-9].iso/
FTP supports globbing directly

wget -q -O- grep 'a href' head
Process output directly

echo 'wget url' at 01:00
Download url at 1AM to current dir

wget --limit-rate=20k url
Do a low priority download (limit to 20KB/s in this case)

wget -nv --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html
Check links in a file

wget --mirror
Efficiently update a local copy of a site (handy from cron)
windows (note samba is the package that provides all this windows specific networking support)

Find windows machines. See also findsmb

nmblookup -A
Find the windows (netbios) name associated with ip address

smbclient -L windows_box
List shares on windows machine or samba server

mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share
Mount a windows share

echo 'message' smbclient -M windows_box
Send popup to windows machine (off by default in XP sp2)

echo '(1 + sqrt(5))/2' bc -l
Quick math

echo 'obase=16; ibase=10; 123' bc
Base conversion (decimal to hexadecimal)

echo $((0x2dec))
Base conversion (hex to dec) ((shell arithmetic expansion))

echo 'pad=20; min=64; (100*10^6)/((pad+min)*8)' bc
More complex (int) e.g. This shows max FastE packet rate

echo 'pad=20; min=64; print (100E6)/((pad+min)*8)' python
Python handles scientific notation

echo 'pad=20; plot [64:1518] (100*10**6)/((pad+x)*8)' gnuplot -persist
Plot FastE packet rate vs packet size
text manipulation (note sed uses stdin and stdout, so if you want to edit files, append newfile)

sed 's/string1/string2/g'
Replace string1 with string2

sed 's/\(.*\)1/\12/g'
Modify anystring1 to anystring2

sed '/ *#/d; /^ *$/d'
Remove comments and blank lines

sed ':a; /\\$/N; s/\\\n//; ta'
Concatenate lines with trailing
sed 's/[ \t]*$//'
Remove trailing spaces from lines

sed 's/\([\\`\\"$\\\\]\)/\\\1/g'
Escape shell metacharacters active within double quotes

sed -n '1000p;1000q'
Print 1000th line

sed -n '10,20p;20q'
Print lines 10 to 20

sed -n 's/.*<[tT][iI][tT][lL][eE]>\(.*\)<\/[tT][iI][tT][lL][eE]>.*/\1/p;T;q'
Extract title from HTML web page

sort -t. -k1,1n -k2,2n -k3,3n -k4,4n
Sort IPV4 ip addresses

echo 'Test' tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]'
Case conversion

tr -dc '[:print:]' < /dev/urandom
Filter non printable characters

grep 'processor' /proc/cpuinfo wc -l
Count lines
set operations (Note LANG=C is for speed)

LANG=C sort file1 file2 uniq
Union of unsorted files

LANG=C sort file1 file2 uniq -d
Intersection of unsorted files

LANG=C sort file1 file1 file2 uniq -u
Difference of unsorted files

LANG=C sort file1 file2 uniq -u
Symmetric Difference of unsorted files

LANG=C comm file1 file2 sed 's/^\t*//'
Union of sorted files

LANG=C comm -12 file1 file2
Intersection of sorted files

LANG=C comm -13 file1 file2
Difference of sorted files

LANG=C comm -3 file1 file2 sed 's/^\t*//'
Symmetric Difference of sorted files

cal -3
Display a calendar

cal 9 1752
Display a calendar for a particular month year

date -d fri
What date is it this friday. See also day

date --date='25 Dec' +%A
What day does xmas fall on, this year

date --date '1970-01-01 UTC 1234567890 seconds'
Convert number of seconds since the epoch to a date

TZ=':America/Los_Angeles' date
What time is it on West coast of US (use tzselect to find TZ)

echo "mail -s 'get the train' < /dev/null" at 17:45
Email reminder

echo "DISPLAY=$DISPLAY xmessage cooker" at "NOW + 30 minutes"
Popup reminder

printf "%'d\n" 1234
Print number with thousands grouping appropriate to locale

echo "I live in `locale territory`"
Extract info from locale database

locale cut -d= -f1 xargs locale -kc less
List fields in locale database

LANG=en_IE.utf8 locale int_prefix
Lookup locale info for specific country. See also ccodes
disk space (See also FSlint)

ls -lSr
Show files, biggest last

du -s * sort -k1,1rn head
Show top disk users in current dir. See also dutop

df -h
Show free disk space

df -i
Show free inodes

fdisk -l
Show disks partitions sizes and types (run as root)

rpm -q -a --qf '%10{SIZE}\t%{NAME}\n' sort -k1,1n
List all packages by installed size (Bytes) on rpm distros

dpkg-query -W -f='${Installed-Size;10}\t${Package}\n' sort -k1,1n
List all packages by installed size (KBytes) on deb distros

dd bs=1 seek=2TB if=/dev/null of=ext3.test
Create a large test file (taking no space). See also truncate

strace -c ls >/dev/null
Summarise/profile system calls made by command

strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null
List system calls made by command

ltrace -f -e getenv ls >/dev/null
List library calls made by command

lsof -p $$
List paths that process id has open

lsof ~
List processes that have specified path open

tcpdump not port 22
Show network traffic except ssh. See also tcpdump_not_me

ps -e -o pid,args --forest
List processes in a hierarchy

ps -e -o pcpu,cpu,nice,state,cputime,args --sort pcpu sed '/^ 0.0 /d'
List processes by % cpu usage

ps -e -orss=,args= sort -b -k1,1n pr -TW$COLUMNS
List processes by mem usage. See also

ps -C firefox-bin -L -o pid,tid,pcpu,state
List all threads for a particular process

ps -p 1,2
List info for particular process IDs

last reboot
Show system reboot history.

free -m
Show amount of (remaining) RAM (-m displays in MB)

watch -n1 'cat /proc/interrupts'
Watch changeable data continuously
System information (see also sysinfo)

hdparm -i /dev/hda
Show info about disk hda

hdparm -tT /dev/hda
Do a read speed test on disk hda

badblocks -s /dev/hda
Test for unreadable blocks on disk hda

mount column -t
Show mounted filesystems on the system (and align output)

cat /proc/partitions
Show all partitions registered on the system

grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
Show RAM total seen by the system

grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo
Show CPU(s) info

lspci -tv
Show PCI info

lsusb -tv
Show USB info
recode (Obsoletes iconv, dos2unix, unix2dos)

recode -l less
Show available conversions (aliases on each line)

recode windows-1252.. file_to_change.txt
Windows "ansi" to local charset (auto does CRLF conversion)

recode utf-8/CRLF.. file_to_change.txt
Windows utf8 to local charset

recode iso-8859-15..utf8 file_to_change.txt
Latin9 (western europe) to utf8

recode ../b64 <> file.b64
Base64 encode

recode /qp.. <> file.qp
Quoted printable decode

recode ..HTML <> file.html
Text to HTML

recode -lf windows-1252 grep euro
Lookup table of characters

echo -n 0x80 recode latin-9/x1..dump
Show what a code represents in latin-9 charmap

echo -n 0x20AC recode ucs-2/x2..latin-9/x
Show latin-9 encoding

echo -n 0x20AC recode ucs-2/x2..utf-8/x
Show utf-8 encoding

Powerful filemanager that can browse rpm, tar, ftp, ssh, ...

Virtual terminals with detach capability, ...

Web browser

Interactive/scriptable graphing

Matlab like environment


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